Introduction Research and writing are central to our activities as political scientists. This website is intended to aid students engaged in a variety of related activities: Academic papers are not simply the result of selecting a research question and putting an answer into words.
The aim of any research regardless of whether it is a quantitative research or a qualitative research should be to maintain rigor and control in the research in order to seek the truth. For a novice researcher, it is hard to seek rigor and control in the qualitative research.
To bring validity to the qualitative research he should ask two questions from himself: The answer to the first question is the researcher himself and in case he is a novice in this field he will get help from the research supervisor or an expert in the field.
The answer to the second question can be obtained by applying statistical procedures to the data measured. In qualitative studies, if statistical analysis cannot answer the second question than logic is used to maintain that the research tools are valid and reliable.
Types of validity in research There are three types of validity in research: Face validity Face validity measures the validity of the instrument by creating a logical relationship between the questions on the scale and the objectives of the study.
The questions on the scale should have a logical reason why they have been developed, i-e; they should provide answers to the objectives. It should also be noted that the questions on the scale should cover all the objectives of the study. The problem with face validity is that the logic on the basis of which the researcher develops questions is subjective and hence it varies from person to person.
If different questions will be developed the link between the objectives and the instrument will not remain same. Concurrent and predictive validity Concurrent validity measures the extent to which the results of a scale are concurrent with the results of a similar study in the past.
It can also refer to testing the same test on two groups concurrently to establish the validity of the test.
It also predicts how valid the scale can be in the future, this is a very fast way to measure or establish the validity of a test. Its use is very common in the field of psychology and personal attributes can be very accurately tested with this validity.
Construct validity Construct validity determines the validity in a more objective manner. It measures the instrument validity by developing a link between the questions and the outcome variables by testing the coefficient of variation. To establish construct validity the researcher should have good knowledge of the statistical procedures.
How to enhance validity in qualitative research To enhance or maintain validity and trustworthiness in the qualitative research the researcher needs to adopt the following techniques: In qualitative research, the researcher cannot adopt an objective manner and hence he is unable to prove the validity by using statistical procedures.
He can adopt some methodological techniques to develop and ensure validity in the research. He needs to make sure that he has avoided personal biases to a minimum to establish the validity of the research. He should also use the most appropriate sampling technique to avoid the sampling bias.
A novice researcher can seek help from the research supervisor as well as other experts in the field to maintain validity in the research. The investigator should have to be responsive and adaptable to situations and should clarify and summarize things in the best possible manner to the audience.
The investigator should maintain the credibility, confirmability, and trustworthiness of the study by adopting the right tools in his research. The reliability and validity of the research tool can also be enhanced by using different techniques to collect data are used to get in depth and reliable results.
These researchers suggest that the terminology validity and reliability should not be removed from the qualitative research. In one study conducted by Morse, et al the authors noted that nowadays the qualitative researchers focus on rigor and control through the verification of investigators actions in the qualitative research, they argued that the qualitative researchers should reclaim responsibility for reliability and validity by implementing verification strategies during the course of research itself.
In their opinion, qualitative research should follow the scientific procedures that are inherent to their research design to bring valid, reliable and trustworthy outcomes.A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah Discovering Mental Toughness: A Qualitative Study of Mental Toughness in Elite Athletes [R] Simon C.
Middleton, Herb W. Marsh, . The concept of reliability, generalizability, and validity in qualitative research is often criticized by the proponents of quantitative research. Though it is difficult to maintain validity in qualitative research but there are some alternate ways in which the quality of the qualitative research can be enhanced.
40 QualITaTIve ReseaRch DesIGn conclusions. It also helps you justify your research, something I discuss in more detail in Chapter 7. In this chapter, I discuss the different sources for this theory, and how to.
Abstract: A number of issues can affect sample size in qualitative research; however, the guiding principle should be the concept of saturation. This has been explored in detail by a number of authors but is still hotly debated, and some say little understood.
A sample of PhD studies using. Guidelines for Qualitative Papers There is no one qualitative method, but rather a number of research approaches which fall under the umbrella of ‘qualitative methods’.
The various social science disciplines tend to have different conventions on best practice in qualitative research.