We must move promptly to understand precisely what went wrong and determine how we are going to fix it.
After reviewing and analyzing the response to Hurricane Katrina, we identified seventeen specific lessons the Federal government has learned. These lessons, which flow from the critical challenges we encountered, are depicted in the accompanying text box. Fourteen of these critical challenges were highlighted in the preceding Week of Crisis section and range from high-level policy and planning issues e.
Some of these seventeen critical challenges affected all aspects of the Federal response. Others had an impact on a specific, discrete operational capability. Yet each, particularly when taken in aggregate, directly affected the overall efficiency and effectiveness of our efforts.
This chapter summarizes the challenges that ultimately led to the lessons we have learned. Over one hundred recommendations for corrective action flow from these lessons and are outlined in detail in Appendix A of the Report. National Preparedness Our current system for homeland security does not provide the necessary framework to manage the challenges posed by 21st Century catastrophic threats.
But to be clear, it is unrealistic to think that even the strongest framework can perfectly anticipate and overcome all challenges in a crisis.
|Access denied | arteensevilla.com used Cloudflare to restrict access||The tragedy of New Orleans isn't primarily due to racism or government incompetence, though both played a role.|
|Critical Challenge: Integrated Use of Military Capabilities||The story of New Orleans began with the French in need of a new source of income to compensate for the losses to the treasure from war with England. French-Canadian fur traders brought a plan to the king hoping to fund a voyage to the mouth of the Mississippi to settle trading colonies.|
|New Orleans Maps and Transportation||The real cause is automobility -- or more precisely to the lack of it. But, as a chart in the Times article makes clear, the people who got out were those with automobiles.|
|Critical Challenge: National Preparedness||
|New Orleans Tragedy||
While we have built a response system that ably handles the demands of a typical hurricane season, wildfires, and other limited natural and man-made disasters, the system clearly has structural flaws for addressing catastrophic events.
During the Federal response to Katrina3, four critical flaws in our national preparedness became evident: Our processes for unified management of the national response; command and control structures within the Federal government; knowledge of our preparedness plans; and regional planning and coordination.
A discussion of each follows below. Unified Management of the National Response Effective incident management of catastrophic events requires coordination of a wide range of Transortation key to new orleans tragedy essay and activities, public and private.
Yet this framework does not address the conditions of a catastrophic event with large scale competing needs, insufficient resources, and the absence of functioning local governments.
These limitations proved to be major inhibitors to the effective marshalling of Federal, State, and local resources to respond to Katrina.
Soon after Katrina made landfall, State and local authorities understood the devastation was serious but, due to the destruction of infrastructure and response capabilities, lacked the ability to communicate with each other and coordinate a response.
State and local governments are best positioned to address incidents in their jurisdictions and will always play a large role in disaster response.
But Americans have the right to expect that the Federal government will effectively respond to a catastrophic incident. When local and State governments are overwhelmed or incapacitated by an event that has reached catastrophic proportions, only the Federal government has the resources and capabilities to respond.
The Federal government must therefore plan, train, and equip to meet the requirements for responding to a catastrophic event. Command and Control Within the Federal Government In terms of the management of the Federal response, our architecture of command and control mechanisms as well as our existing structure of plans did not serve us well.
Command centers in the Department of Homeland Security DHS and elsewhere in the Federal government had unclear, and often overlapping, roles and responsibilities that were exposed as flawed during this disaster. The Secretary lacked real-time, accurate situational awareness of both the facts from the disaster area as well as the on-going response activities of the Federal, State, and local players.
As a result, many agencies took action under their own independent authorities while also responding to mission assignments from the Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMAcreating further process confusion and potential duplication of efforts.
This lack of coordination at the Federal headquarters-level reflected confusing organizational structures in the field.
This is convoluted, inefficient, and inappropriate during emergency conditions. Time equals lives saved. Federal departments and agencies were required to develop supporting operational plans and standard operating procedures SOPs to integrate their activities into the national response.
Consequently, some of the specific procedures and processes of the NRP were not properly implemented, and Federal partners had to operate without any prescribed guidelines or chains of command.
This inability to place trained personnel in the JFO had a detrimental effect on operations, as there were not enough qualified persons to staff all of the required positions. Insufficient Regional Planning and Coordination The final structural flaw in our current system for national preparedness is the weakness of our regional planning and coordination structures.
Guidance to governments at all levels is essential to ensure adequate preparedness for major disasters across the Nation.
While qualified acting directors filled in, it placed extra burdens on a staff that was already stretched to meet the needs left by the vacancies. When programs operate out of regional offices, closer relationships are developed among all levels of government, providing for stronger relationships at all levels.
By the same token, regional personnel must remember that they represent the interests of the Federal government and must be cautioned against losing objectivity or becoming mere advocates of State and local interests. However, these relationships are critical when a crisis situation develops, because individuals who have worked and trained together daily will work together more effectively during a crisis.
The Federal government should work with its homeland security partners in revising existing plans, ensuring a functional operational structure - including within regions - and establishing a clear, accountable process for all National preparedness efforts.
In doing so, the Federal government must: Ensure that Executive Branch agencies are organized, trained, and equipped to perform their response roles. Finalize and implement the National Preparedness Goal.Vanishing Automobile update #55 Lack of Automobility Key to New Orleans Tragedy. 4 September Those who fervently wish for car-free cities should take a closer look at New Orleans.
These have the effect of creating a distinct picture of the cosmopolitan New Orleans, and to use setting to prepare the audience for tragedy.
For example, the play is set ‘between the L & N tracks and the river’. New Orleans. The plan for New Orleans may have been issued in , but it took three nations, many wars, and 85 years for the trading colony near the mouth of the Mississippi river to develop from an unfavorable plot of land into one of the main cultural melting pots in the new world/5(1).
New Orleans New Orleans is a city in southern Louisiana, located on the Mississippi River. Most of the city is situated on the east bank, between the river and Lake Pontchartrain to the north. Because it was built on a great turn of the river, it is known as the Crescent City.
Mar 21, · ABOARD THE CITY OF NEW ORLEANS — On the long trip south from Chicago that began Thursday night and rumbled into a new morning and afternoon, passengers watched highways give way to dirt roads. Apparently, the tragedy of New Orleans is caused neither by governmental incompetence not by racial profiling.
Actually, it is caused by transportation problem .